These modules are offered for „Optical Metrology“ on a regular basis. Please note: Each module usually corresponds to a single course with the same title. In a few cases, a module is linked to two courses which will then have different titles.
Thermophysical Properties of Working Materials in Process and Energy Engineering
Prof. Dr. Fröba, 5 ECTS
(can be found as „Thermophysikalische Eigenschaften von Arbeitsstoffen der Verfahrens- und Energietechnik“ in the public course catalogue, but is taught in English)
- The importance of thermophysical properties in process and energy engineering
- Equilibrium properties for the characterization of working materials, e.g., in the form of thermodynamic properties of state and other equilibrium properties such as density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacity, sound speed, refractive index, surface or interfacial tension, etc.
- Transport properties for the characterization of molecular transfer of mass, energy, and momentum, e.g. diffusion coefficients, Soret coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity
- Use-oriented inquiry of thermophysical property data in scientific literature, table compilations, and databases
- Correlation and prediction of thermophysical properties
- Methods for experimental determination and in-process measurement of thermophysical properties, in particular by laser-optical techniques
- Basics of the theoretical prediction of thermophysical properties by molecular modeling
Modern Optics 2: Non-linear optics
Prof. Dr. Joly, Dr. Fattahi, 5 ECTS
- Linear properties of materials.
- Origin of the nonlinear susceptibility.
- Importance of phase-matching.
- Second harmonic generation, derivation of the set of coupled equations.
- Importance of the initial phase and case of seeding second harmonic generation. Use of birefringence to achieve phase-matching.
- Electro-optic effects.
- Nonlinear process in relation to third order nonlinearity.
- Modulation instability, soliton formation, perturbations of soliton, and supercontinuum generation.
- Application: nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibers.
Optical Technologies in Life Sciences
Prof. Dr. Friedrich, PD Dr. Schürmann, 5 ECTS
- Application of optical methods in the field of cell biology and medicine
- Microscopy: Basic concepts, methods to enhance contrast, optical resolution and limits, components and setup of light microscopes, fluorescence microscopy
- Applications of fluorescence microscopy in life sciences, methods for labeling of biological structures and cellular processes´
- Epi-fluorescence, confocal and multiphoton microscopy, concepts and application examples
- Optical endoscopy and endomicroscopy in research and clinics
- Super-resolution microscopy, concepts and applications for optical Imaging beyond the diffraction Limit of Resolution
Prof. Dr. Peukert, Dr. Walter, 5 ECTS
The module introduces modern (optical) techniques for characterization of disperse systems in chemical engineering and materials science. The participants will learn general principles as well as where, when and on which time scale information on materials properties can be gained by the discussed methods. For disperse systems the latter can be for example particle size, particle shape, materials composition, electronic properties and surface chemistry as well as surface charge.
- Introduction to Materials Properties and Classification
- Sampling, Error Sources and their Analysis
- Definition and Determination of Particle Distribution, Size and Shape
- Principles Optics and Diffraction I
- Principles Optics and Diffraction II
- Diffraction, Rayleigh-, Mie scattering
- Static and Dynamic Light scattering
- X-Ray Scattering and Applications
- Zetapotential and its measurement with optical methods
- Analytical Ultra-Centrifugation with Multi-Wavelength Optics
- Nonlinear Optics at Interfaces and its Application
- Color and its Measurement: UV-Vis and Fluorescence Spectroscopy
- Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy including Surface-Enhanced Techniques
- Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)
- Scanning Probe Microscopy and Electron Microscopy
Optical Diagnostics in Energy and Process Engineering
Prof. Dr. Will, Dr. Huber, 5 ECTS
- properties of light; properties of molecules; Boltzmann distribution;
- geometric optics; lasers (HeNe, Nd:YAG, dye, frequency conversion); continuous wave and pulsed lasers;
- photoelectric effect; photodetectors (photomultiplier, photodiode, CCD, CMOS, image intensifier); digital image processing; image noise and resolution;
- shadowgraphy and schlieren techniques;
- elastic light scattering (Mie scattering, Rayleigh thermometry, nanoparticle size and shape, droplet sizing);
- Raman scattering (species concentration, temperature, diffusion);
- incandescence (thermal radiation, pyrometry, particles);
- velocimetry (flow fields);
- absorption, fluorescence (temperature, species, concentration)
Prof. Dr. de Ligny, 5 ECTS
The module consists of two courses. Students have to attend both to earn the ECTS for the module.
Optical properties of glasses
- Fundamental concepts: The electromagnetic spectrum and units, Absorption, Luminescence, Scattering
- Optical transparency of solids: Optical magnitudes and the dielectric constant, The Lorentz Oscillator, Metals, Semiconductors and insulators, Excitons, Reflection and polarization
- Optical glasses: Optical aberration and solutions, Dispersion properties and composition
- Colors in glasses: The eye, Optically Active Centers, Transition metals in glasses, Metallic and Chalcogenide nanoparticles
- Chromism: Thermochromism, Photochromism, Gasochromism, Electrochromism
- IR glasses: Chalcogenide, Fluorite glasses
- Optical Fibers: Principle, Manufacturing, Applications, Photonic fibers
Vibrational spectroscopies, from theory to practice
- Nature of vibrations inside matter
- Interaction light matter
- Raman application
- Infrared Spectroscopy
- Advanced technics
Theses modules were taught on a irregular basis during previous semesters and might be offered again, but there is no guarantee.
Advanced Microscopic Techniques
Dr. Singh, 5 ECTS
- Confocal microscopy: Confocal microscopy is an imaging technique which provides improved resolution and contrast compared to full field imaging by using a pin hole which helps reducing the out of focus light. Confocal microscopes are backbone for most of biological labs and are used frequently to study cellular mechanics.
- Optical coherence tomography imaging (OCT): OCT is an imaging technique which can provide axial resolution better than 1 micron using broadband low coherence light source. This has allowed to perform optical biopsies for several biological samples in vivo.
- Raman microscopy: Raman microscopy is a technique within vibrational spectroscopy, which is based on the inelastic scattering of light. It provides information on the chemical composition of the sample based on its vibrational spectra. Since the development of the first commercial Raman spectrometer in 1953, advances in lasers and detectors and the discovery of new phenomena have expanded the use of this technique in several research fields
- Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM): STORM is one of the most ubiquitously employed super-resolution imaging techniques. It utilizes sequential activation and time-resolved localization of photoswitchable fluorophores to create high resolution images. During imaging, only an optically resolvable subset of fluorophores is activated to a fluorescent state at any given moment, such that the position of each individual fluorophore can be determined with high precision.
- Stimulated emission depletion (STED): STED creates super-resolution images by the selective deactivation of fluorophores, minimising the area of illumination at the focal point, and thus enhancing the achievable resolution for a given system.
- Multi-photon excitation (MPE): MPE microscopy is an imaging technique which operates in non linear regime that combines point scanning methods with multiphoton fluorescence to create high-resolution, three-dimensional images of biological samples. Several forms of MPE such as 2 photon, 3 photon microscopy etc, are available. MPE is particularly useful in biology because it can be used to probe delicate living cells and tissues without damaging the sample.
- Phase contrast microscopy (PCM): Several cells offer very low contrast when visualized with standard microscope. PCM provides improved contrast and is a label-free imaging technique allowing visualization of transparent cells. The quantitative phase contrast image provides information about the optical path length change introduced by the sample because of its refractive index and thickness.
- Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (ps-OCT): ps-OCT is gaining attention because of its ability to diagnose certain pathological conditions at an early stage. Several pathological conditions such as cancer can be detected at an early stage by measuring birefringent properties of the tissue. ps-OCT uses low coherence polarized light to probe the birerefregence of the tissue.
- Brillouin Microscopy: Brillouin microscopy is an emerging optical technique that enables non- contact measurement of viscoelastic properties of a material with diffraction-limited resolution in 3D.