Optical Materials and Systems
Optical Materials and Systems
These modules are offered for „Optical Materials and Systems“ on a regular basis. Please note: Each module usually corresponds to a single course with the same title. In a few cases, a module is linked to two courses which will then have different titles.
Prof. Dr. Joly, 5 ECTS
This module naturally follows the “Basics of Lasers” module and aims at deepen the knowledge on a few specific aspects of lasers. In particular we will study the Z-cavity of one of the most popular laser system: the Titanium: sapphire laser. The purpose here is to show why simpler cavity is not possible. It requires understanding properly the concept of stability of laser cavity and introduces the problem of astigmatism. In a second stage we see how dispersion effects can hamper the properties of a mode-locked laser system and see how to circumvent this. We then study the different method used to characterize ultrashort laser pulse. This starts from basics concepts of autocorrelation but review more advanced techniques allowing to retrieve fully the amplitude and phase of a laser pulse. Towards the end of the lecture several topics are possible and it will be chosen together with the students. This can be for instance (i) the polarization and the Jones’ formalism (ii) the Maxwell-Bloch equations (iii) the origin of spontaneous emission. Finally in order to broaden the contents of the lecture the students are asked to prepare one half-an-hour presentation of the topics of their choice. The topics are discussed during the first two sessions of the lecture and must focus on a physical aspect of laser.
Halbleitertechnologie IV - Optical Lithography
PD Dr. Erdmann, 5 ECTS
Semiconductor lithography covers the process of pattern transfer from a mask/layout to a photosensitive layer on the surface of a wafer. It is one of the most critical steps in the fabrication of microelectronic circuits. The majority of semi-conductor chips are fabricated by optical projection lithogra-phy. Other lithographic techniques are used to fabricate litho-graphic masks or new optical and mechanical devices on the micro- or nanometer scale. Innovations such as the introduc-tion of optical proximity correction OPC), phase shift masks (PSM), special illumination techniques, chemical amplified resist (CAR) materials, immersion techniques have pushed the smallest feature sizes, which are produced by optical pro-jection techniques, from several wavelengths in the early 80ties to less than a quarter of a wavelength nowadays. This course reviews different types of optical lithographies and compares them to other methods. The advantages, disad-vantages, and limitations of lithographic methods are dis-cussed from different perspectives. Important components of lithographic systems, such as masks, projection systems, and photoresist will be described in detail. Physical and chemical effects such as the light diffraction from small features on ad-vanced photomasks, image formation in high numerical aper-ture systems, and coupled kinetic/diffusion processes in mod-ern chemical amplified resists will be analysed. The course includes an in-depth introduction to lithography simulation which is used to devise and optimize modern lithographic processes.
Thermophysical properties of working materials in process and energy engineering
Prof. Dr. Fröba, 5 ECTS
(can be found as „Thermophysikalische Eigenschaften von Arbeitsstoffen der Verfahrens- und Energietechnik“ in the public course catalogue, but is taught in English)
- The importance of thermophysical properties in process and energy engineering
- Equilibrium properties for the characterization of working materials, e.g., in the form of thermodynamic properties of state and other equilibrium properties such as density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat capacity, sound speed, refractive index, surface or interfacial tension, etc.
- Transport properties for the characterization of molecular transfer of mass, energy, and momentum, e.g. diffusion coefficients, Soret coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity
- Use-oriented inquiry of thermophysical property data in scientific literature, table compilations, and databases
- Correlation and prediction of thermophysical properties
- Methods for experimental determination and in-process measurement of thermophysical properties, in particular by laser-optical techniques
- Basics of the theoretical prediction of thermophysical properties by molecular modeling
- Lab course „Optical Material and Systems“
Waveguides, optical fibres and photonic crystal fibres
Prof. Dr. Schmauss, Prof. Dr. Joly, 5 ECTS
- Guidance mechanism (geometric and EM approaches)
- Photonic crystal fibres (solid-core, hollow-core, bandgap and anti-resonance fibres)
- Nonlinear optics effect in optical fibres
Photovoltaic systems - Fundamentals
Prof. Dr. Brabec, Dr. Hauch, 5 ECTS
The module will introduce to the fundamentals of photovoltaic energy conversion. The conversion of light into electricity is one of the most efficient power technologies of today and is expected to transform our energy system towards a renewable scenario. The limits of photovoltaic energy conversion, the materials and architectures of major PV technologies and advanced characterization methods for modules as well as solar fields will be introduced theoretically and experimentally during the lecture and exercices.
Advanced Semiconductor Technologies - Photovoltaics Systems II: Light Conversion and Light Management
PD Dr. Batentschuk, Dr. Osvet, 5 ECTS
Please note: This module includes a lab course. It will depend on the lab capacities in a particular semester whether MAOT students can attend the lab courses and pass this module. If this is not possible, they can choose the module „Phosphors for Light Conversion in Photovoltaic Devices and LEDs“ instead. The contents are the same, but includes theoretical exercises instead of a lab course.
- Classification of phosphors according to their principle of operation and by field of application.
- Establishing the relationships between crystal structure of phosphors as well as their composition and the desirable absorption and emission properties.
- Energy transfer between the crystal lattice and active ions as well as between these ions
- Consideration of several examples
- Theoretical analysis of phosphor engineering with the purpose to reach maximal energy efficiency during transformation of the ionizing radiation
- Basics and to methods of storage phosphor manufacturing
- Analysis of requirements to the properties and new trends in development of phosphors for white light emitting diodes and for adaptation of the sun light spectrum to the sensitivity of solar cells and plants
Prof. Dr. de Ligny, 5 ECTS
The module consists of two courses. Students have to attend both to earn the ECTS for the module.
Optical properties of glasses
- Fundamental concepts: The electromagnetic spectrum and units, Absorption, Luminescence, Scattering
- Optical transparency of solids: Optical magnitudes and the dielectric constant, The Lorentz Oscillator, Metals, Semiconductors and insulators, Excitons, Reflection and polarization
- Optical glasses: Optical aberration and solutions, Dispersion properties and composition
- Colors in glasses: The eye, Optically Active Centers, Transition metals in glasses, Metallic and Chalcogenide nanoparticles
- Chromism: Thermochromism, Photochromism, Gasochromism, Electrochromism
- IR glasses: Chalcogenide, Fluorite glasses
- Optical Fibers: Principle, Manufacturing, Applications, Photonic fibers
Vibrational spectroscopies, from theory to practice
- Nature of vibrations inside matter
- Interaction light matter
- Raman application
- Infrared Spectroscopy
- Advanced technics
Modern Optics: Advanced Optics
Prof. Dr. Götzinger, Prof. Dr. Joly, 5 ECTS
- Photonic Crystal Optics
- Laser/ Pulsed light / pulse propagation
- Guided wave optics
- Fiber optics
- Photonic crystal fibers
- Optical resonators / microresonators
- Acousto optics/spatial light modulator
- Orbital angular momentum
Advanced Course in Experimental Physics
Prof. Dr. Götzinger / Prof. Dr. von Zanthier, 10 ECTS
The module discusses light-matter interaction in different systems as well as the quantum nature of light. Emphasis is put onto the laser. Starting from the theory of optical resonators and Gaussian beams we review the generation of laser light on a microscopic level (Maxwell-Bloch equations) and examine its principal characteristics. Various applications of laser light in quantum optics, laser spectroscopy, laser cooling and trapping of atoms and in non-linear optics are investigated. In addition we review various quantum optical phenomena like photon statistics, photon bunching/anti-bunching, multi-photon interferences, intensity interferometers and resonance fluorescence.
Theses modules were given irregularly during the previous semesters and might be offered again, but there is no guarantee.
Theoretical Methods for Optical Properties of Solids
Dr. Roland Gillen, 5 ECTS
The lecture series will discuss modern (and less modern) theoretical methods for the simulation of optical spectra of crystalline materials. A focus will lie on the proper description of excitonic and trionic contributions, which are important in one- and two-dimensional materials. Examples in the form of calculations and paper reviews will be integrated into the lectures.
Selected topics are:
Excitons in solid, particularly one- and two-dimensional materials
Effective mass-based approaches
Modern ab initio methods, such as density-matrix based approaches and the excitonic Bethe-Salpeter Equation
Reading material containing the contents of the lecture and recordings from a previous lecture series will be available here on StudOn.